# DSL 2¶

Nextflow provides a syntax extension that implements that allow the definition of module libraries and simplifies the writing of complex data analysis pipelines.

To enable this feature you need to defined the following directive at the beginning of your workflow script:

nextflow.enable.dsl=2


## Function¶

Nextflow allows the definition of custom function in the workflow script using the following syntax:

def <function name> ( arg1, arg, .. ) {
<function body>
}


For example:

def foo() {
'Hello world'
}

def bar(alpha, omega) {
alpha + omega
}


The above snippet defines two simple functions, that can be invoked in the workflow script as foo() which returns the Hello world string and bar(10,20) which return the sum of two parameters.

Tip

Functions implicitly return the result of the last evaluated statement.

The keyword return can be used to explicitly exit from a function returning the specified value. for example:

def fib( x ) {
if( x <= 1 )
return x
else
fib(x-1) + fib(x-2)
}


## Process¶

### Process definition¶

The new DSL separates the definition of a process from its invocation. The process definition follows the usual syntax as described in the process documentation. The only difference is that the from and into channel declaration has to be omitted.

Then a process can be invoked as a function in the workflow scope, passing the expected input channels as parameters as it if were a custom function. For example:

nextflow.enable.dsl=2

process foo {
output:
path 'foo.txt'
script:
"""
your_command > foo.txt
"""
}

process bar {
input:
path x
output:
path 'bar.txt'
script:
"""
another_command $x > bar.txt """ } workflow { data = channel.fromPath('/some/path/*.txt') foo() bar(data) }  Warning A process component can be invoked only once in the same workflow context. ### Process composition¶ Processes having matching input-output declaration can be composed so that the output of the first process is passed as input to the following process. Taking in consideration the previous process definition, it’s possible to write the following: workflow { bar(foo()) }  ### Process outputs¶ A process output can also be accessed using the out attribute for the respective process object. For example: workflow { foo() bar(foo.out) bar.out.view() }  When a process defines two or more output channels, each of them can be accessed using the array element operator e.g. out[0], out[1], etc. or using named outputs (see below). ### Process named output¶ The process output definition allows the use of the emit option to define a name identifier that can be used to reference the channel in the external scope. For example: process foo { output: path '*.bam', emit: samples_bam ''' your_command --here ''' } workflow { foo() foo.out.samples_bam.view() }  ## Workflow¶ ### Workflow definition¶ The workflow keyword allows the definition of sub-workflow components that enclose the invocation of one or more processes and operators: workflow my_pipeline { foo() bar( foo.out.collect() ) }  For example, the above snippet defines a workflow component, named my_pipeline, that can be invoked from another workflow component definition as any other function or process i.e. my_pipeline(). ### Workflow parameters¶ A workflow component can access any variable and parameter defined in the outer scope: params.data = '/some/data/file' workflow my_pipeline { if( params.data ) bar(params.data) else bar(foo()) }  ### Workflow inputs¶ A workflow component can declare one or more input channels using the take keyword. For example: workflow my_pipeline { take: data main: foo(data) bar(foo.out) }  Warning When the take keyword is used, the beginning of the workflow body needs to be identified with the main keyword. Then, the input can be specified as an argument in the workflow invocation statement: workflow { my_pipeline( channel.from('/some/data') ) }  Note Workflow inputs are by definition channel data structures. If a basic data type is provided instead, ie. number, string, list, etc. it’s implicitly converted to a channel value (ie. non-consumable). ### Workflow outputs¶ A workflow component can declare one or more out channels using the emit keyword. For example: workflow my_pipeline { main: foo(data) bar(foo.out) emit: bar.out }  Then, the result of the my_pipeline execution can be accessed using the out property ie. my_pipeline.out. When there are multiple output channels declared, use the array bracket notation to access each output component as described for the Process outputs definition. Alternatively, the output channel can be accessed using the identifier name which it’s assigned to in the emit declaration: workflow my_pipeline { main: foo(data) bar(foo.out) emit: my_data = bar.out }  Then, the result of the above snippet can accessed using my_pipeline.out.my_data. ### Implicit workflow¶ A workflow definition which does not declare any name is assumed to be the main workflow and it’s implicitly executed. Therefore it’s the entry point of the workflow application. Note Implicit workflow definition is ignored when a script is included as module. This allows the writing of a workflow script that can be used either as a library module and as application script. Tip An alternative workflow entry can be specified using the -entry command line option. ### Workflow composition¶ Workflows defined in your script or imported by a module inclusion can be invoked and composed as any other process in your application. workflow flow1 { take: data main: foo(data) bar(foo.out) emit: bar.out } workflow flow2 { take: data main: foo(data) baz(foo.out) emit: baz.out } workflow { take: data main: flow1(data) flow2(flow1.out) }  Note Nested workflow execution determines an implicit scope. Therefore the same process can be invoked in two different workflow scopes, like for example foo in the above snippet that is used either in flow1 and flow2. The workflow execution path along with the process names defines the process fully qualified name that is used to distinguish the two different process invocations i.e. flow1:foo and flow2:foo in the above example. Tip The process fully qualified name can be used as a valid process selector in the nextflow.config file and it has priority over the process simple name. ## Modules¶ The new DSL allows the definition module scripts that can be included and shared across workflow applications. A module can contain the definition of a function, process and workflow definitions as described in the above sections. ### Modules include¶ A component defined in a module script can be imported into another Nextflow script using the include keyword. For example: include { foo } from './some/module' workflow { data = channel.fromPath('/some/data/*.txt') foo(data) }  The above snippets includes a process with name foo defined in the module script in the main execution context, as such it can be invoked in the workflow scope. Nextflow implicitly looks for the script file ./some/module.nf resolving the path against the including script location. Note Relative paths must begin with the ./ prefix. ### Multiple inclusions¶ A Nextflow script allows the inclusion of any number of modules. When multiple components need to be included from the some module script, the component names can be specified in the same inclusion using the curly brackets notation as shown below: include { foo; bar } from './some/module' workflow { data = channel.fromPath('/some/data/*.txt') foo(data) bar(data) }  ### Module aliases¶ When including a module component it’s possible to specify a name alias. This allows the inclusion and the invocation of the same component multiple times in your script using different names. For example: include { foo } from './some/module' include { foo as bar } from './other/module' workflow { foo(some_data) bar(other_data) }  The same is possible when including multiple components from the same module script as shown below: include { foo; foo as bar } from './some/module' workflow { foo(some_data) bar(other_data) }  ### Module parameters¶ A module script can define one or more parameters using the same syntax of a Nextflow workflow script: params.foo = 'Hello' params.bar = 'world!' def sayHello() { println "$params.foo $params.bar" }  Then, parameters are inherited from the including context. For example: params.foo = 'Hola' params.bar = 'Mundo' include {sayHello} from './some/module' workflow { sayHello() }  The above snippet prints: Hola Mundo  The option addParams can be used to extend the module parameters without affecting the external scope. For example: include {sayHello} from './some/module' addParams(foo: 'Ciao') workflow { sayHello() }  The above snippet prints: Ciao world!  Finally the include option params allows the specification of one or more parameters without inheriting any value from the external environment. ## Channel forking¶ Using the new DSL, Nextflow channels are automatically forked when connecting two or more consumers. For example: Channel .from('Hello','Hola','Ciao') .set{ cheers } cheers .map{ it.toUpperCase() } .view() cheers .map{ it.reverse() } .view()  The same is valid for the result (channel) of a process execution. Therefore a process output can be used by two or more processes without the need to fork them using the into operator, making the writing of workflow scripts more fluent and readable. ## Pipes¶ ### The pipe operator¶ Nextflow processes and operators can be composed using the | pipe operator. For example: process foo { input: val data output: val result exec: result = "$data world"
}

workflow {
channel.from('Hello','Hola','Ciao') | foo | map { it.toUpperCase() } | view
}


The above snippet defines a process named foo then invoke it passing the content of the data channel. The result is piped to the map operator which converts each string to uppercase and finally, the last view operator prints it.

### The and operator¶

The & and operator allows feeding of two or more processes with the content of the same channel(s) e.g.:

process foo {
input: val data
output: val result
exec:
result = "$data world" } process bar { input: val data output: val result exec: result = data.toUpperCase() } workflow { channel.from('Hello') | map { it.reverse() } | (foo & bar) | mix | view }  In the above snippet the channel emitting the Hello is piped with the map which reverses the string value. Then, the result is passed to either foo and bar processes which are executed in parallel. The result is pair of channels whose content is merged into a single channel using the mix operator. Finally the result is printed using the view operator. Tip The break-line operator \ can be used to split long pipe concatenations over multiple lines. The above snippet can be written as shown below: workflow { channel.from('Hello') \ | map { it.reverse() } \ | (foo & bar) \ | mix \ | view }  ## DSL2 migration notes¶ • DSL2 final version is activated using the declaration nextflow.enable.dsl=2 in place of nextflow.preview.dsl=2. • Process inputs of type set have to be replaced with tuple. • Process outputs of type set have to be replaced with tuple. • Process output option mode flatten is not available anymore. Replace it using the flatten operator on the corresponding output channel. • Anonymous and unwrapped includes are not supported anymore. Replace it with a explicit module inclusion. For example: include './some/library' include bar from './other/library' workflow { foo() bar() }  Should be replaced with: include { foo } from './some/library' include { bar } from './other/library' workflow { foo() bar() }  • The use of unqualified value and file elements into input tuples is not allowed anymore. Replace them with a corresponding val or path qualifier: process foo { input: tuple X, 'some-file.bam' script: ''' your_command ''' }  Use: process foo { input: tuple val(X), path('some-file.bam') script: ''' your_command --in$X some-file.bam
'''
}

• The use of unqualified value and file elements into output tuples is not allowed anymore. Replace them with a corresponding val or path qualifier:

process foo {
output:
tuple X, 'some-file.bam'

script:
X = 'some value'
'''
your_command > some-file.bam
'''
}


Use:

process foo {
output:
tuple val(X), path('some-file.bam')

script:
X = 'some value'
'''
your_command > some-file.bam
'''
}

• Operator bind has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax

• Operator operator << has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax.

• Operator choice has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax. Use branch instead.

• Operator close has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax.

• Operator create has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax.

• Operator countBy has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax.

• Operator into has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax since it’s not needed anymore.

• Operator fork has been renamed to multiMap.

• Operator groupBy has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax. Replace it with groupTuple

• Operator print and println have been deprecated by DSL2 syntax. Use view instead.

• Operator merge has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax. Use join instead.

• Operator separate has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax.

• Operator spread has been deprecated with DSL2 syntax. Replace it with combine.

• Operator route has been deprecated by DSL2 syntax.